**Phy 123: ****Waves and Oscillations, Optics and Thermal Physics **

**Credit Hours
:3.00 (Level-1, Term-1, BME)**

*Waves and Oscillations**: Differential equation of simple harmonic oscillator, Total energy, average energy and combination of simple harmonic oscillations, Spring mass system, Torsional pendulum; Two body oscillation, Reduced mass, Damped oscillation, Forced oscillation, Resonance; Progressive wave, Power and intensity of wave, Stationary wave, Group and phase velocities.*

*Optics** : Defects of images: Spherical aberration, Astigmatism, Coma, Distortion, Curvature, Chromatic aberration. Theories of light; Interference of light: Young's double slit experiment, Displacement of fringes and its uses, Fresnel Bi-prism, Interference in thin films, Newton's rings, Interferometers; Diffraction of light: Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, Diffraction by single slit, Diffraction from a circular aperture, Resolving power of optical instruments, Diffraction at double slit and N-slits, Diffraction grating; Polarization: Production and analysis of polarized light, Brewster's Law, Malus Law, Polarization by double refraction, Nicol prism, Optical activity, Polarimeters.*

*Thermal Physics**:Principle of temperature measurements: Platinum resistance thermometer, Thermo-electric thermometer, Pyrometer; Kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell's distribution of molecular speeds, Mean free path, Equipartition of energy, Brownian motion, Van der Waal's equation of state, First Law of Thermodynamics and its application, Reversible and irreversible processes, Second Law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, Efficiency of heat engines, Carnot’s theorem, Entropy and disorder, Thermodynamic functions, Maxwell relations, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Gibbs phase rule, Third Law of Thermodynamics.*